Spatial Development Framework
The Maphumulo Development Vision was illustrated within previous sections of this report. As the central future concept for development within the municipality, this vision needs to be translated spatially in order to ensure the development of land as well as the future management of all resources all work towards the achievement of this vision and does not contradict it. IDP Priorities that have spatial impact
The following IDP Priorities which have the spatial impact were identified, clustered and ranked against the National Key Performance Areas:
NATIONAL KPA and IDP PRIORITY
Water and Sanitation
Road and Stormwater
Housing and Land
Local Economic Development
3. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Spatial Development Challenges and Objectives
Maintaining Continuous Green Space and Protecting Biodiversity
The present generation is challenged to engage with the natural resource base and meet its development needs in a manner that enables the future generations to meet their own development needs. This is often referred to as environmentally sustainable development. It acknowledges the need to protect the environmentally sensitive areas, optimal utilization of high potential agricultural land, creation of an integrated open space system and enhancement of the aesthetic quality of the environment.
River systems as functional systems: Ideally, a buffer line would follow the 1:50 year floor line, but in view of the lack of such information an indicative line has been used. Rivers provide opportunities for tourism, irrigation and sports development. Uthukela and Umvoti Rivers are major rivers that run through the Municipal area. Ecological zones are environmentally sensitive areas, which are not necessarily protected or declared as such. These include wetlands, areas where there are endemic species, scenic areas, etc. Although high impact development should be discouraged in such areas, they provide opportunities for environmental conservation and tourism development.
Transport Corridors as Investment Routes
A public investment approach, which emphasizes static points, thus defining access in terms of radial service areas is inefficient. It multiplies the number of points, minimizes the impact of inputs and thus the investment required. In conditions of scattered settlement pattern, as is the case in Maphumulo, regional transport routes which link a number of areas should, instead, become the logical focus area of an ordered strategy for rural development. These routes should be seen as activity and investment lines. The structure they give to the area is articulated in the form of movement patterns and systematic distribution of land uses in space.
However, not all regional routes are the same in terms of the intensity of use and ability to attract investment, services, economic activities and settlement. Generally, larger routes linking generators of movement and investment have a greater generative capacity than smaller routes. It thus follows that regional facilities and services should gravitate towards these areas. Smaller facilities requiring smaller thresholds should be located along smaller routes. Viewed in this way, the issue of regional and rural spatial organisation becomes one of creating a systemic framework of interlocking activity routes over time. This has an impact of reducing spatial marginalisation, increasing equitable access to all level of services and promoting investment. The location of facilities along major routes recognises the importance of choice to the rural communities with respect to services such as education, health and welfare facilities.
Enforcing Integration between Different Landscapes/Land Use Zones
The intention with the built environment should be the creation of large continuous precincts of built form, rather than it occurring in spatially discreet pockets or cells, as is commonly the case in Maphumulo. This is necessary to obtain economies of agglomeration. At places, the continuity of the fabric should be systematically broken so as to ensure equitable access to green space and other opportunities. For this reason, extensive spaces such as arable or grazing land, should as a general rule, be located in suitable land including broken topography in the case of grazing land. Where such space intersects with the built up areas, the edges of the space should be carefully defined to maintain a sense of built continuity.
Acknowledging the Structure and Behavior of the Existing Settlement
Settlement in Maphumulo Municipality occurs in the form of low density and sometimes-sprawling settlements reflecting the culture and tradition of the local communities. This pattern is not sustainable and renders service delivery and development ineffective. While this is critical in defining the structure and behaviour of settlements, it has given rise to a continuum of rural settlement ranging from low density remotely located agrarian communities to centrally located relatively high density settlements. Some settlements developed as a result of betterment schemes and land reform program. These have well defined structure and pattern. A detailed consideration of the settlement pattern reveals a high level of interdependence and connectivity between settlements, and suggests that they are functionally integrated. They are spread in space in the form of footprints (unsystematic but logical). Higher density settlements are located along the main transportation routes and are held together by a web of local access roads and public facilities located along these roads. At a regional level, they are knit together by a system of regional access routes. However, settlements are also not static. They respond to change and are continuously in the process of transformation.
Spatial Development Strategies
Although the current spatial pattern is inefficient and expensive, one has to admit that it is a fixed spatial pattern. Therefore, the aim should not be to alter the existing spatial structure, but one should rather guide its future development towards a better, more efficient and more cost-effective settelment structure. In short, one should start addressing the weaknesses of the spatial structure through the planning and development of its future growth. Five strategies can by adopted to achieve this:
Strategy 1: Rural integration
Spatially the municipality aims to move away from the fragmented and sprawling rural structure existing within the majority of the wards. Consolidating all the existing outlying settlements with each around main access routes and service points should achieve this. This can be done by filling in the unpopulated areas between these settlements with the future growth of these settlements without compromising the subsistence land required for these rural settlements.. By doing this, the settlements will join together and towards more sustainable nodal area, forming consolidated rural areas and in turn making service provision more financially viable . Such an integrated rural structure will form the bases for providing cost-effective municipal services and public transportation infrastructure. It should however be noted that the position of the relatively sparse rural settlements will require long term commitment to this spatial ideal.
Strategy 2: Infrastructure development
Providing bulk infrastructure can be an important tool to achieve the above-mentioned spatial pattern and will, in turn, result in cost savings when developing the bulk infrastructure. All future bulk infrastructure should be developed within the rural nodal areas described above; because where bulk infrastructure is developed, clustered development will follow. In this manner, bulk services will force future development into a more rational and desirable spatial pattern. At the same time, the location, implementation and functioning on the bulk services network will be rationalized.
Strategy 3: Equitable access to social services
As was mentioned, the majority of rural settlements located on the outskirts of the Municipal Area are located far from the social services provided in the MaphumuloTown area. This result is high public transportation cost for the poor living in these areas to access these services. It is imperative that a number of these social services be provided in these outlying settlements through the development of Service Delivery Centres. A hierarchy of such SDCs, containing facilities such as clinics and community centres, will place these facilities closer to these settlements, thus making them more accessible and achieving greater urban integration.
Strategy 4: Land use and transportation integration
In South Africa, public transportation costs make up a large proportion of household incomes, a cost that is augmented by the sprawling nature of our cities. Land use development and public transportation are therefore interlinked and affect each other greatly. Within rural landscapes such as Maphumulo, development corridors create the optimal land use structure for the cost-effective operation of public transport systems. Public transportation works most effectively in a linear pattern, as opposed to winding its way through a widespread urban area. Such a linear land use pattern also benefits commuters, because it implies that residential settlements hug the corridor roadplacing commuters within shorter walking distances of such public transportation termini.
Strategy 5: Protection of agriculture and open space
A way to integrate rural areas is to deliberately protect high-potential agricultural areas and ecologically sensitive natural open spaces. By rigorously protecting such areas, residential areas are prohibited to sprawl freely and are therefore forced into denser settlement agglomerations. Therefore, such an approach not only protects agriculture and the environment, but also helps create a more rational, cost-effective and manageable settlement structure.
Strategy 6: Sustainable Human Settlements Development
Service Development Nodes / Centers
Maphumulo Municipality has identified the development of Maphumulo Town as a primary node/service centre of the municipality. The town is seen as a principal service centre and administrative node which will stimulate economic regeneration within the municipality. Strategies for the development of this area should focus on the following:
Finalization of a strategic planning and development framework indicating future land use pattern.
Formalization of Maphumulo Town which entails formal proclamation of the area as a township or development area (DFA), opening of a township register and clarification of land tenure options.
Identification and packaging of strategically located sites as a means to attract potential investors to invest in the development of Maphumulo as a regional centre. These sites should be packaged to cater for varying development needs and also ensure that it encourages investment. This can be achieved by means of creating development precincts which would cater for Institutional, Commercial, etc.
Communication campaign to explain the implications of the formalization process to the existing rights holders.
Introduction and application of the Land Use Scheme based on the Land Use Management System as adopted by the Municipality or the LUMS guidelines as developed by the Provincial Government.
In view of the fact that Maphumulo Municipality is generally rural in nature, the secondary nodes are small, low-key and emerging centres located either at the intersection of major arterial routes or along these routes. They may include a few community services, low order commercial facilities and serve as meeting places. Strategies for dealing with these areas should include the following:
Engaging the local stakeholders (Traditional Authorities, Community Based organizations, etc) in defining the size and geographic extent (boundaries) of these areas.
Formulation of development frameworks for each node taking into account its character, existing land use/activities, development potential and latent opportunities.
Introduction and application of the Land Use Scheme based on the Land Use Management System as adopted by the Municipality or the LUMS guidelines as
Tertiary nodes are incipient in nature and serve as periodic service centres (pension pay-points, mobile clinics, etc), but may also include services such as a informal taxi rank, local convenient shops such as spaza shops, informal traders and a community hall. Strategies for the development of these areas should focus on the formulation of broad strategic guidelines for managing future allocation of land rights, resources and location of projects. It is also important to assess the status quo of service delivery in terms of sewerage, water and energy provision. This will assist in providing required services and/or infrastructure such on-site water provision, street lighting, sewerage disposal, tarred roads, street/pavement paving, etc.
Areas such as the KwaShushuhotsprings, ItshelikaNtunjambili (the Kop) are identified as low key tourism areas within the Municipality. Small scale tourism development around these areas should be encouraged to add to the uniqueness and tourism attractiveness of the area. There is a demand for middle income housing and rental stock in the municipality and the area identified on this SDF which can possibly accommodate this kind of development is the Primary Node, Maphumulo Town and possibly Ntunjambili. Other areas identified for future housing within the municipal area are AmaNgcolosi, AmaMbedu, AmaBomvini, Nodunga and Hlongwa areas. In semi rural/rural Communities developments should be rural-based, of a small scale, labour orientated and related to the existing agricultural activities and the natural resource base. It is envisaged that subsistence agriculture and housing will be the primary land use in this zone, exceeding tourism in importance. Particular attention should be paid to the retention of the integrity of rural landscapes.
Low key commercial activities are to be promoted at Maphumulo Town area. These should include office development and mixed use development. Light industrial activities are to be promoted at the Ntunjambili Node due to accessibility to transport routes which are not as busy as other corridors and possibly have minimal environmental impacts. At all these potential designations, it is important that Local Area Development Plans be undertaken with the Maphumulo Town and Ntunjambili Nodes being priority. The Maphumulo Spatial Development Framework Map is attached hereto as Annexure J1.
Development/movement corridors provide strong linkages between main settlements in the settlement hierarchy, as well as channelling movement within the municipality and the adjacent municipalities. They also provide strong structuring elements to guide future development and are one of the most significant structuring elements in the spatial framework. The spatial framework movement pattern has a hierarchy of corridors, namely, primary, secondary and tertiary. These corridors are classified in terms of their role in facilitating movement patterns and potential for encouraging development. The following classification has been used:
Primary corridors, which are essentially the movement routes, that carries high volumes of traffic and link the main centres in Maphumulo with other centres within Ilembe District. Secondary corridors, which provides strategic linkages between major settlement webs and the nodes. Tertiary corridors, which are essentially main internal (within and between settlements) movement routes.
The primary “north–south” corridor (P711) emanates from Ndwedwe (KZ293) at the south through to Maphumulo. The municipal area is linked via an existing “east-west” corridor (R 74) from Kranskop (KZ 245) through to Stanger (KZ292). A further primary corridor (P15) to be re-inforced links the Northern portion of the municipality to Kranskop and Madungela (KZ 286). Three regional transport routes have been identified as primary development corridors. Maphumulo (R74) serves as the main access route to Maphumulo area and Ilembe District and links the municipal area with Stanger, Greytown and Ndwedwe which feature prominently in the District Spatial Development Framework.
Settlements located along these corridors should be prioritized for upgrading in terms of service delivery, road infrastructure, housing and development of higher order public facilities. Particular attention should be paid to the nodes and other accessible areas. North-South corridor (P711) is a strategic link in the Ilembe District Municipality’s SDF and is aligned to the corridor highlighted in the Ndwedwe SDF.
The secondary corridors are as follows: Linking Hhosi (D881) to R 74 through onto either Kranskop in the west or Stanger to the east; Linking wards 5, 6 and 11 (D1527) to the west of P711 to Maphumulo; Extending the linkage from P711 to Stanger via Khabane Linking the P711 and R74 via the settlement of Nhlanomfula (D1532). The route which link the settlements of Thafamasi, lead to the secondary corridor D881 and also the route which links the settlement of Oqaqeni and Otimati.
The secondary corridors facilitate movement and improve the level of access within the municipal area. They provide road linkages between different settlement webs and also provide access to the tourism centres. The following are identified as secondary corridors:
Road to Khabane. This road provides access to main road to Ndwedwe and a number of settlements are located along this road.
Link road from Hhosi to Mphise. This serves as the main internal link road between the northwestern and south-eastern settlements. It is also a tourist route to ItshelikaNtunjambili and kwaShushu hot springs.
Link road from KwaMxhosa to Zubane.
Link road from Nhlanomfula to main road to Stanger, similar character as Oqaqeni and Maqumbi.
The tertiary routes are as follows: Roads included are D894, D1573, D1533 and D1534 Road D1630 linking secondary corridor to Primary Corridor (P711) Route linking the Primary Corridor (P711) to Umvoti (KZ245). Tertiary corridors are found mainly within the settlements and bind together different settlements. They serve mainly as internal circulation and access roads to a range of social facilities and economic development opportunities. These corridors are opportunity areas for the location of lower order facilities. The settlement hierarchy and development corridors provide a framework for the future provision of bulk infrastructure, services and facilities, and support for local economic development initiatives.
Green Corridors: Maphumulo Municipality is unique in the sense that two of the KwaZulu-Natal Province major rivers (Uthukela River and Umvoti River) runs through the municipality in a west-easterly direction in line with the rolling hills and broken topography that is characteristic of the area. They both form an important component of the physical and natural structuring system and they represent breaks in development and land use. Many of the valleys contain significant areas of indigenous vegetation and In line with the recommendation contained in the iLembe District Municipality Spatial Development Framework; they should be utilized, together with relevant tributaries as a natural green network structuring the landscape.
The width of this system varies considerable depending on the local topographic and environmental conditions. Appropriate management and maintenance systems should be established together with local communities and appropriate stakeholders. Where relevant a programme of rehabilitation should be considered. This approach would also include appropriately protecting, managing and rehabilitating the natural environment of existing mountain and hill ranges as well as unique natural habitats identified. Where possible the various components should be integrated and linked into an overall natural system consisting of a variety of components.
The municipality should give priority to the following interventions:
Programs that are designed to protect and enhance the quality of the river systems should be promoted. This includes the Working for Water Programme, Removal of alien species and participation in the Catchment Management Programmes Formulation of an Environmental Management Plan and/or Strategic Environmental Assessment as a component of the IDP and a base document for the Land Use Management System. Initiating landcare program in association with the Department of Agriculture. The program will help address challenges such as soil erosion and donga rehabilitation. Identification and protection of indigenous forests and other environmentally sensitive areas.
Protection of Agricultural Land
Nearly half of Maphumulo Municipality comprises of land with a relatively high agricultural potential. However, most of this land has been lost to dispersed expansive rural settlements. This has limited the agricultural activities to subsistence and small scale sugar cane production. Given the strategic location of the area in relation to the Dube Trade Port and its identification in the PSEDS as an area falling with an agricultural and agri-processing corridor, it is important for the municipality in association with the relevant government departments and the affected communities to identify and assemble land for agricultural development purposes. Unlocking this potential may involve the relocation of homesteads in some instances. Potential for out grower schemes should also be explored in greater detail.
Due to the overwhelming rural nature of municipality no urban edge has been identified as yet. The Maphumulo Town area is not a formalized town as yet and as soon as that process is concluded the outside figure of the town will form the first basis of an urban edge. Due to the scattered settlement pattern within the municipality a spatial principle of nodal development and clustering of services and infrastructure is believed to be a more effective manner to contain and concentrate development.
Implementing the SDF
The Spatial Development Framework for Maphumulo Municipality has the following critical aspects:
Protection and enhancement of the natural environment within which all land use and development takes place. A system of corridors, which seeks to improve access and movement patterns. A system of settlement footprints as the basis for service delivery and development A system of nodes, which forms the basis for the agglomeration of certain activities Framework for economic development.
The following have been identified as specific areas in the municipality, which require targeted interventions to assist and guide development:
Recreation and Tourism areas: Recreation and tourism areas should be developed and promoted in order to support LED and tourism initiatives, as well as social development for residents of the municipality. Two of the key tourism opportunities identified is the development of the Kwa-ShushuHotsprings and ItshelikaNtunjambili.
Poverty Alleviation Areas: These are peri-urban and rural areas in which there are low levels of economic activity and high levels of poverty. Key intervention in these areas include: Provision of access to municipal and social services Support for LED initiatives such as SMME’s and small scale agriculture.